Frobag, Adar


1. On Garments.

2. Garments or clothing are (essential) for persons of a high order. For instance, next the body should be worn the excellent garment of the Sudre (the sacred shirt), and over it be put on the Kusti (the sacred girdle). As far as possible one should not expose (the body), nor should he move about without the Sudre and Kusti on. The pudenda (i.e. the private parts of men and women) should be kept covered. Cold winds and hot winds should be guarded against (by suitable garments). And besides this a clean dress, protecting the body, should be put on according to the requirements of one’s work or occupation. The body should be kept pure (undefiled); nor should it be put to unnecessary exertion. Nor should one put on a dress that is out of vogue (i.e. other than the habitual dress) and is strange. For certain acts and for certain things there should be no fighting. To conduct oneself on the right path, one should be full of pure resources, and be virtuous.

1. On Women

2. The wife of one’s choice (i.e. to whom one is tied by the marriage ceremony) should always be treated with much affection and without the tinge of niggardliness (i.e. with liberality in the conferring of favors). One should strive for the increase of progeny by going in to her. She should be made a sharer in the recompense for righteous deeds. One’s Shah-zan (i.e. a maiden wife) should be given a good dowry. A Chakar-zan (i.e. a wife who was previously a widow) should not be given the same amount as the Shah-zan. One should keep up (intimate) relations with one’s wife, and have sexual intercourse with her several times. There is no limit (i.e. reckoning) of this (i.e. of the number of times one should have the sexual congress), but thrice in a month would be reasonable. As far as possible, (i.e. unless through necessity), a woman should not wed a second husband, nor a man a second wife, because such act, (according to the religion), is not a meritorious one.

1. On Charity.

2. There are various ways of ascertaining where charity is deserved, and a description of this is given below. A way should be opened for the happiness of worthy and excellent people, for the good of the souls of the devout people, and for (the relief of) every follower of the good religion, who may be unable to preserve himself against hunger, thirst, and (the rigors of) summer and winter. (The poor) should be supported for a long time from the interest on the capital and from the receipts of the income.

3. Charity should be extended towards those among men, who are worthy of being taken care of. In like manner one should be charitable to the poor of superior worth, who are, for years together, without (proper) sustenance. People of evil religions, who may be in danger of suffering from hunger, thirst, and cold, should be saved from these (hardships). Also Margarzani sinners (i.e. those deserving of capital punishment), who may be in dread of religious justice and be unable to help themselves, should be protected. As far as possible one should not partake of food till after feeding the needy. Moreover it is proper for one to be liberal towards the creatures, who, from a religious point, are under his control And other good men, who are the reciters of the Avesta and are the doers of good deeds, should be given the means of sustenance.

1. On contracting Matrimony.

2. If anyone tries with evil intent to sever the matrimonial tie, complaint regarding it should be lodged (in a court of justice), with the view of obtaining State interference in the matter; and if then, in accordance with the judgment, he re-accepts the conjugal relationship (i.e. the enjoyment of marital right), he should in no wise be punished with imprisonment. Because, in like manner, every such living creature is regarded by the Creator as the accused (in the above case), but finally, in the comprehensive test from the beginning to the end, he is given an exalted position as belonging to the good creation. Frequent repetition of the act of propagating the offspring is an act of great worth, and glorious, and it holds a noble and exalted position among other good, superior functions of men; and therefore they (the men) should do this act frequently with the view of ensuring the perpetuity of their progeny. (Men) should form good connections for the purpose of increasing the progeny, and should live a harmless virtuous life. And children should be properly brought up, — which entails good care on the part of the parents. It is through the marriage tie that men become related to each other and live contentedly. They remain adherents of the good religion, and so no occasion arises for their harboring wicked jealousy of one another. And they, with their children, live together in the same abode, in the same place, dwelling together in one locality, with affectionate regard for one another, and taking a watchful care of their families. Again, owing to their unanimity on religious points, their views (on other points) are similar, and from a sense of honor they preserve one another from falling into avarice. In like manner they refrain from approaching a stranger. And they carefully guard themselves against the inimical demons harmful to men, by being very much in dread of them. By observing such precautions men attain to super-excellence, and can aspire to many other virtues; and by the exercise of like carefulness they come to know of the advantage of stability, and acquire occult virtues, and attain to the glory of possessing a keen desire for the perfect improvement of their posterity, and of securing for them high positions. And the procreation of worthy noblemen generation after generation is due to this cause only. And especially by faith in the acceptor of the (Divine) mission — (the Prophet) chosen (by God) — can a man obtain salvation in every particular (i.e. from every sort of sin). In this way every well-known pious man remains addicted to truthfulness, following in every particular the sincere admonitions of the prophets and the bearers of the Divine revelation (i.e. the invisible Yazads). But the ordinances of the holy Zartosht are those that were obtained by him on his receipt of the Religion from the Creator Ohrmazd.

1. On Worship or Adoration.

Image2. It behooves us, as far as it lies in our power, to pay homage to, that is to worship, Spenamino Ohrmazd, the Creator of the good creation, with thought, word, and deed, for His gift of Life and Body. And for the providence underlying all His creations, we ought to sing His praises, render obeisance unto Him, and be thankful to Him as it behooves His creatures to be. And in order to propitiate Him (the Zoroastrians) should with one accord worship and glorify Him, (firstly) by means of the Yazashne or invocation. Three times a day — at sunrise, at noon, and in the afternoon — while rendering obeisance to the Sun, the Creator Ohrmazd should first of all be praised and invoked, and afterwards His supreme creations (i.e. the Yazads and the Amahraspands). Secondly — the Gahambars should be celebrated for five days with highly virtuous thought and good devotion, and by means of the recital of the propitiatory formula of “Rathvo Berezato.” The holy Farohars should be invoked with the Yazashne [=Yasna] ceremony during the ten sacred days of the Frawardigan. In the twelve months of the year the rozgar ceremony of the deceased should be performed on the respective dates. The year has twelve months, and each month has thirty days. The five days of the Gathas are the accumulation of the surplus day-fractions. One should always take his meals before praying. Moreover, according to the details of the other prayers given in the Avesta, one should perform separately, with feelings of devotion and sincerity, the act of propitiating the (Divine) creations (i.e. the Yazads and the Amahraspands), and of the good things bestowed by God. And also their miraculous powers and greatness should be praised and remembered; and their great and marvelous gifts (to us) should at the same time be alluded to. And an open acknowledgment should be made of the fact that these gifts have been given by the Lord for the love of us. And in prayers the face should be turned towards every luminous object worthy of obeisance. And for that purpose one must seek the presence of the objects shining with pure light. Also, one should offer due praise to men, domestic animals, fire, metals, land and water, and vegetation, and should do reverence to them. And, as ordained in the religion, these substances should be kept preserved from impurity, while (to the animate beings) proper food should be given according to the dictates of the religion. Moreover pain should not be inflicted on mankind, but as far as possible good should be done unto them. One should have regard and affection for (people of) one’s community, and should visit them, and should live with them in one abode. And one should hold other relationship with them, especially that pertaining to communion. Relationship (i.e. communion) is of four kinds: (1) Personal (or direct) relationship, (2) relationship through humility, (3) relationship through good conduct, and (4) relationship through religion. Of these the highest connection is that with the king (of the country), because it confers respectability on a man, though he may not belong to the good creation. Every man and every substance ought to be properly estimated. From (the man or substance) that is invisible or incomprehensible we should form a very high idea of the providence of the Creator who brought into being such invisible and marvelous objects, and we should render thanks to the Lord for this act of His. And one should offer to him praise, prayer, and supplication. If these thoughts do not pervade a man he cannot claim to be a virtuous man or a believer in Ohrmazd, nor should he expect to realize the various sorts of bliss mentioned in the religion that enjoins good conduct.

1. On not injuring Men and Animals.

2. Pain, injury, or hardship should not be inflicted on virtuous men. A promise or plighted faith should not be broken, nor should obligation be forgotten. Niggardliness and other demoniacal traits should not be adopted. Animosity should not be entertained towards, nor injury done to anything belonging to the good creation. One’s inferior should be treated as equals, and taken care of. Domestic animals should be kept out of harm’s way, and should be attended to in the matter of the supply of water and forage, and should be guarded in other legitimate ways. And when they reach maturity they should be slain for (the use of) the men of superior wisdom and of exalted position (i.e. the priestly class who perform the religious ceremonies), and for smiting the demons, and for the great rites performable in connection with the Atash-Bahram (i.e. for the fat-offering on the occasion of the religious festivals). They should not be slaughtered unlawfully and without cause. And they should be preserved from (going into the hands of) unworthy men, from a disproportionate allowance of food and drink, from being kept tethered, from being harmed by thieves and wolves, from hunger and thirst, from (the rigors of) summer and winter, and from being afflicted with other woes. And they should not be unlawfully overburdened with work and labor. And bad men should not be allowed to ride over them. There should be no undue exercise of power over them. And they should be treated with kindness, and as required by the law.

1. On Fire.

2. Fire is a thing differing from other principal shining bodies (i.e. the Sun, the Moon, the Stars, &c.) which give luminosity to the things on this Earth; and it is the original principle of water, of air, and of every visible matter. To it is due the existence and sustenance of men. One should abstain from extinguishing it. It should be kept 30 paces off, each pace being equal to three steps (i.e. foot-lengths), from decaying animal matter; and it should not be seen except from a distance of 15 paces by women during menstrual should be kept at a distance of three paces from (the source of) offensive smell and from bodily excretions. Moreover it should be kept clear of ashes, and out of reach of wicked men, of fluids, of contaminating substances, and of immoral men. It should be protected from the rays of the Sun, and prevented from going out through lack of fuel, be preserved from hot or cold blasts, and it should not be made use of in any work involving dishonest labor. Good, worthy people (i.e. the Athornans) should carefully tend it (i.e. take care of it). Dry, pure, and clean wood, and incense, that are suitable for feeding the fire, should be placed on it; and it should be preserved and kept with reverent care. It should be scrupulously guarded, and be held as the symbol of worship, according to the dictates of the religion. And further, as is done by the heads of the religion, it should be cherished as the giver of intensive force to religious rites and proper devotions.


1. On Metals.

2. Metals, whether serving for ordinary use or ornament, should be kept properly clean, and apart from defiling matter. They should be made into implements of various kinds. Gold and silver should not be given to atheistic and immoral men, who might, by keeping the same lying uselessly underground, cause the metals to tarnish and rustNor should these be given for use to the wicked, lest they might serve for the ornamentation of these unworthy men.

— original source: —


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